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The whats, whys and hows of this herbarium
Where exactly is Appalachia?

Constantly updating. Blank areas are still in progress.
The herbarium was last modified on .

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Alder, American : Alnus Serrulata (Aiton) Willd. (Betulaceae-Birch )
Historical & Medicinal Use:as a brown dye; also was chewed to treat ulcers, for poison ivy rashes by boiling the inner bark and as a treatment for pink-eye.
Toxicology: *May cause dermatitis. (see source:wood anatomy)
Majikal Applications:Warding fire. Fibonnacci and spiral work. Water work. Promotes growth. Thicket work-confusion, trapping and warding. Bog work: collecting, building up, muck and mire.
Marsh work: Rain and zen gardens. Grows best in medium to wet soils in full sun to part shade.
Other Names:Hazel Alder. Smoth Alder. Serrulata=serrated leaves.
Notes: *Original point of origin: Tibet and Xinjiang, China. Now native to North America.

Alfalfa: Medicago sativa (Fabaceae)
Historical & Medicinal Use: leaves (not sprouts) in infusions, tablets and capsules. Alfalfa leaves are said to have wonderful healing powers that can prevent heart disease,
lower cholesterol and help prevent strokes.
Growing & Harvesting:
Toxicology:Alfalfa seeds should never be ingested as they contain high levels of amino acid canavanine.
Some chemicals in alfalfa can also destroy red blood cells and people with anemia should use caution when ingesting it.
Majikal Applications:
Other Names: Buffalo Grass,Lucerne
Notes:

Allspice: Family: Myrtaceae Genus: Pimenta Species: Officinalis, Dioca
Historical & Medicinal Use: Allspice is used as a digestive aid, anesthetic, and pain reliever and has been used to treat flatulence and diabetes.
Growing & Harvesting: the allspice berries is indigenous to the rainforests of South and Central America. You can grow the tree in North America, if you have the proper climate, such as a greenhouse.
Toxicology: Allspice oil should never be swallowed as it can cause nausea, vomiting, and even convulsions.
The oil can also be irritating when applied externally to people with sensitive skin or those with eczema.
Majikal Applications: Heat, warmth, love, sensuality.
Other Names: Clove Pepper, Pimento, Pimenta, Jamaican Pepper
Aloe: Family: Liliaceae Genus: Aloe Species: Vera (and over 500 others)
Historical & Medicinal Use: cut mature (lower) leaves for burns, scalds, sunburns, or cosmetic benefits.
Aloe is one of the most widely used herbs for burns, scalds, scrapes, sunburn, and an incredible infection fighter. It can also be used to smooth and beautify skin.
Growing & Harvesting: potting soil mix or a regular potting soil that has been amended with additional perlite or building sand.
Make sure that the pot has plenty of drainage holes. Aloe vera plants cannot tolerate standing water.
Break off leaves and push out the gel inside.
Toxicology: Aloe latex is a very powerful laxative and may cause severe cramps and diarrhea. It should never be ingested by pregnant women as it may cause miscarriage
Majikal Applications: healing.
Other Names: Socotrine, Cape, Curaiao, Barbados, Zanzibar Aloe
Notes:

Amaranth: Amaratnhus Hybrzdus L. (Amaranathaceae)
Historical & Medicinal Use: Astringent. Dysentery, ulcers, bowel hemmorrhage.
Toxicology:N/A *source-PFAF.org
Majikal Use: Strength, stamina, vampyrism.
Growing & Harvesting: Leaves and herb.
Other Names:Love Lies Bleeding, Pigweed, Smooth Pigweed, Slender Pigweed,Careless, Green Amaranth ,
Green Opened Amaranth, Slim Amaranth, Spleen Amaranth, Hybrid Amaranthus, Prince's Feather, Red Cockscomb, Wild Beet.
Notes:

Angelica: *Angelica Atropurpurea L. (Umbelliferae)
Historical & Medicinal Use: Oils were used to treat colic and gas. Expectorant by boiling stems in sugar water. Root infusion for angry stomach and diruetic.
Native Americans would smoke for calming effects and aid in respiratory ailments.The stalks were eaten like celery because the flavor is said to be similar.
Early American settlers boiled parts of the plant to make into candy and added it to cakes. In Europe, it was believed that the plant could cure alcoholism.
Toxicology: Some folks can be allergic to the angelicas because of the furocoumarins they contain. The active chemicals may cause photosensitivity, skin rashes and
nausea in people who are sensitive to it. There is a LOT of conflicting information on the toxicity of Angelica when ingested, possibly because there are so many
variants of the plant and so many toxic plants look exactly like Angelica to an untrained eye. I find the best policy is "when in doubt, don't".
Majikal Use: Water majiks. Crescent majiks. Fire warding. Casting out.
Growing & Harvesting: Root in Autumn.
Other Names: There are about 25 species of Angelica worldwide.
Angelica, American Angelica, Common Angelica, Great Angelica, High Angelica, Purplestem Angelica, Alexanders, Archangel,
Aunt Jerichos, Bellyache Root, Bai Zhi, Dead Nettle, Masterwort, Masterwort Aromatic.
Notes: *This species is very similar in appearance to the deadly water hemlock.
*This is NOT Angelica Sinesis. Angelica sinensis, commonly known as Dong Quai in traditional Chinese medicine is native only to the cool high altitude mountains of
China, Japan, and Korea.
Each species has different chemical compounds, so medicinally, they do not do exactly the same things. Majikal energy is also
different as Dong Quai is good for attainment, learning and clarity, whereas American Angelica is good for water and emotional work.

Anise: Umbelliferae Genus: Pimpinella Species: Anisum
Historical & Medicinal Use: infusion of seeds, tinctures. It has been used as a cough remedy, digestive aid, and contains chemicals similar to estrogen, which may help with
menopausal discomforts, and has been known to treat some cases of prostate cancer.
Toxicology: If your doctor has advised you not to use birth control pills then you should seek the advise of a physician before using this herb because it contains estrogen.
Majikal Use: Star majiks. Love. Absorption.
Growing & Harvesting: Anise plants need full sun and well-drained soil. Harvest stars in Autumn.
Other Names:Aniseed, Sweet Cumin Notes:



Bergamot, Wild: Monarda fistulosa (Lamiaceae)
Historical & Medicinal Use:
Growing & Harvesting:
Toxicology:
Majikal Applications:
Other Names: Bee Balm
Notes:

Blackberry, Wild: Rubus (Rosaceae) Historical & Medicinal Use: They are made into an astringent tea which is used to relieve sore throats, mouth ulcers, diarrhoea and thrush.
Crushed berries juice
makes a nice blue dye and ink.
Growing & Harvesting: Harvest in Summer.
Toxicology: N/A, high in Tannin. Can cause skin irritation. Pins break easily under the skin.
Majikal Applications: Protection when grown in thickets. Playfulness, strength, determination.
Other Names: Brambles, Dewberry, Black Caps, Caneberry
Notes: There are over 375 species worldwide.

Burdock, Greater: Arctium Lappa L.(Asteraceae)
Historical & Medicinal Use: Folks have taken this by mouth to treat colds, cancer, anorexia, stomach and intestinal complaints, joint pain, gout, bladder infections, diabetes,
complications of syphilis, and *skin conditions including acne and psoriasis NIH
In Chinese traditional medicine it is called Nu Bang Zi.
Toxicology:N/A
Majikal Applications: cleansing, clarification, removals, reparation, protection. Growing & Harvesting:prefers loamy soil and a neutral pH in areas with average water. Seeds should be stratified and germinate at 80 to 90 % when sown directly in spring after
all danger of frost has passed. Plant seeds 1/8 inch under the soil and keep evenly moist. Germination takes place in 1-2 weeks.
the best time to harvest the root is during the fall of the first year, when the plant has large leaves that are green on top and grayish underneath, or during the spring of the second year.
During burdock's second year, the plant has purple flowers from summer to early fall.Roots in the fall of plant's first year of growth;
seeds the second year of growth.
Other Names:Great burdock, beggar's buttons, burdock, clotbur, lappa.
Notes:The Difference between Burdock & Thistle

Burdock, Lesser:Arctium Minus HILL. BRNH. (Asteraceae)
Historical & Medicinal Use: Growing & Harvesting: same as Greater Burdock. Roots in the fall of plant's first year of growth; seeds the second year of growth.
Toxicology:
Majikal Applications:
Other Names: Common burdock, burdock, clotbur, cuckoo button, smaller burdock.
Notes:



Chamomile: Compositae Genus: Matricaria, Anthemis Species: Chamomilla, Nobilis respectively
Historical & Medicinal Use: infusion or tincture of flowers, herbal bath.This herb is a highly used cure-all, and every household should seriously consider
having it around. It has been used externally to treat wounds and inflammations, and internally for indigestion and ulcers.
Chamomile is also used to relieve menstrual cramps, arthritis, and is an effective sedative.
Growing & Harvesting: Plant chamomile in the spring from either seeds or plants.grows best in cool conditions and should be planted in part shade, but will also grow full sun.
harvest flowers.
Toxicology:People who have previously suffered anaphylactic reactions from ragweed should think twice about using this herb as well as its close relative yarrow.
Large amounts have caused some nausea and vomiting.
Majikal Applications: Star majiks. Calming. Rest
Other Names: Camomile, Anthemis, Matricaria, Ground Apple
Notes:

Chestnut, Horse:Aesculus Hippocastanum L. (Hippocastanaceae)
Historical & Medicinal Use: Seed, bark, flower, and leaves of the Common Horse Chestnut have been used.
Seed extract contains the active chemical aescin/esculin which is synthesized in medicine as an anti-inflammatory, vasoconstrictor and vasoprotective.
Toxicology: All parts of the horse chestnut are toxic and can cause death if eaten raw...unless you're a squirrel.
Horse chestnuts are NOT the same as Buckeyes (Aesculus glabra). The horse chestnut has sticky buds that distinguish it from buckeyes
and other trees and both can cause sickness and death.
Majikal Applications:
Growing & Harvesting: Just don't
Other Names: F*!k this tree.
Notes:Please do not carry these nuts or any other parts of the tree in your pocket
or around your neck, because no matter what anyone says, traditional or not, it's pretty unlucky to drop dead.
Folks telling folks to drill them out (toxic dust) and fill them with liquid mercury (super you will die toxic) for luck, even. SMDH. Superstition CAN kill you.

Chickweed: Stellaria media (Caryophyllaceae)
Historical & Medicinal Use:
Growing & Harvesting:
Toxicology:
Majikal Applications:
Other Names:
Notes:

Chicory: Cichorium intybus (Asteraceae)
Historical & Medicinal Use:
Growing & Harvesting:
Toxicology:Cilantro might slow blood clotting. There is concern that cilantro might increase the risk of bleeding in people with bleeding disorders when eaten in large amounts.
Majikal Applications:
Other Names: blue daisy, blue dandelion, blue sailors, blue weed, bunk, coffeeweed, cornflower, hendibeh, horseweed, ragged sailors,
succory, wild bachelor's buttons
Notes:

Coriander/Cilantro:Umbelliferae Genus: Corinadrum Species: Sativum
Historical & Medicinal Use:
Growing & Harvesting: full sun or light shade in well-drained, moist soil.
Coriander: ut the stems when about half of the seeds have changed from green to grayish-tan.
Gather the stems together with a rubber band and hang the bunch upside-down in a warm, dry place for about two weeks.
Cilantro: You can harvest cilantro leaves once the plants are about 6 inches tall.
Toxicology:
Majikal Applications: preservation and prosperity
Other Names: Cilantro, Chinese Parsley
Notes: Coriander is the name for the leaves and stalks of the plant, while the dried seeds are called coriander seeds.

Creeping Charlie: Glechoma hederacea (Lamiaceae)
Historical & Medicinal Use:
Growing & Harvesting:
Toxicology:
Majikal Applications:
Other Names: Creeping Jenny, Jenny.ground-ivy, gilla the ground, alehoof, tunhoof, catsfoot, field balm, and runrun robin
Notes:



Dogbane: Apocynum Androsaemifolium (Apocynaceae)
Historical & Medicinal Use: Chinese medicine uses another species. Do not ingest. Skin absorption warning.
Toxicology: Extremely Poisonous.
Majikal Use: None that is worth handling the plant, in my opinion.
Other Names: Spreading dogbane, American ipecac, bitter dogbane, bitter-root, black Indian hemp, catch fly, colicroot, common dog's-bane,
dogbane, fly trap, honey bloom, Indian hemp, milk ipecac, milkweed, rheumatism wood, wandering milkweed, western wallflower, wild ipecac.
Notes:

Dogbane, Hemp: Apocynum Cannabinum L. (Apocynaceae)
Historical & Medicinal Use: Long ago used as a cardiotonic drug and used to make fishing nets.
Toxicology: Extremely Poisonous. Do not ingest. Skin absorption warning.
Majikal Uses: None that is worth handling the plant, in my opinion.
Other Names: Hemp dogbane, American hemp, amyroot, bitter-root, Bowman's root, Canadian hemp, choctaw root, &abrous hemp, Indian hemp,
Indian physic, milkweed, rheumatism weed, silkweed, wild cotton.
Notes:



Echinchea: Echinacea (Asteraceae)
Historical & Medicinal Use:
Growing & Harvesting:
Toxicology:
Majikal Applications:
Other Names: Coneflower
Notes:

Elderberry:Sambucus canadensis (Adoxaceae)
Historical & Medicinal Use:
Growing & Harvesting:
Toxicology:
Majikal Applications:
Other Names:
Notes:



Fireweed:Chamerion angustifolium (Onagraceae)
Historical & Medicinal Use:
Growing & Harvesting:
Toxicology:
Majikal Applications:
Other Names:
Notes:

Forget-Me-Not:Myosotis (Boraginaceae)
Historical & Medicinal Use:
Growing & Harvesting:
Toxicology:
Majikal Applications:
Other Names: Scorpion flower
Notes:

Flag, Sweet: Acorus Calamus L.
Historical & Medicinal Use: Insecticide. Historically used to relieve gas by chewing the root, but is toxic and under commercial ban.
"FDA studies have shown that only calamus native to India contains the carcinogenic β-asarone. The North American variety contains only asarone.
Calamus has been banned by the FDA as a food additive and within the last few years many herbal shops have stopped recommending or dispensing it."
[source]
Also known as singer's reed because it was used long ago as a numbing agent and to clear the throat of phlegm or was powdered for use in satchets for it's aroma.
Harvesting: N/A
Majikal Applications: To bring truth and clarification. To ward away pests.
Other Names: Beewort, Bitter Pepper Root, Calamus Root, Flag Root, Gladdon, Myrtle Flag, Myrtle Grass, Myrtle Root, Myrtle Sedge, Pine Root, Sea Sedge, Sweet Cane,
Sweet Cinnamon, Sweet Grass*, Sweet Myrtle, Sweet Root, Sweet Rush, and Sweet Sedge.
Notes:* not sacred sweet grass



Ginseng, American: Panax quinquefolius/Panacis quinquefolis (Araliaceae)
Historical & Medicinal Use:
Growing & Harvesting:
Toxicology:
Majikal Applications:
Other Names:
Notes: American Ginseng is considered to be cooling/yin and Asian ginseng warm/yang.



Hemlock, Poison: Conium Maculatum Historical & Medicinal Use: don't
Growing & Harvesting: don't
Toxicology: Highly poisonour. all parts. skin absorption.
Majikal Applications: N/A
Other Names: deadly hemlock, spotted hemlock, purple hemlock,
Notes: Identification: spotted purple stems LINK





Jack-in-the-Pulpit:Arisaema Triphyllum (Araceae)
Historical & Medicinal Use: The plant has been used as an expectorant, irritant, and diaphoretic.
Growing & Harvesting: Corms in Autumn, but they're toxic, so why would you?
Toxicology: All parts are toxic.
Majikal Applications: Bog work. annoyances, funk, muck and mire. anxiety, skin irritations. curse work.
Other Names: bog onion, cuckoo plant, dragon root, dragon turnip, Indian turnip, Jack-in-the-pulpit, lords and ladies, meadow turnip, memory root,
pepper turnip, priest's pintle, small Jack-in-the-pulpit, starchwort, swamp turnip, thrice-leaved arum, wake robin, wild turnip.
Notes:



Knotweed:Polygonum pensylvanicum (Polygonaceae)
Historical & Medicinal Use:
Growing & Harvesting:
Toxicology:
Majikal Applications:
Other Names: Pennsylvania Smartweed, Pinkweed
Notes:

Kudzu: Pueraria (Fabaceae)
Historical & Medicinal Use:
Growing & Harvesting:
Toxicology:
Majikal Applications:
Other Names: Japanese Arrowroot, Appalachian Arrowroot
Notes:





Maidenhair: Adiantum Capillus-Veneris L. & Adiantum Pedatum (Polypodiaceae: ferns)
Historical & Medicinal Use: In Europe as an expectorant, tonic and astringent tea.
Toxicology: None as yet ascertained. A review on pharmacological properties and toxicological effects of Adiantum capillus-veneris L.
Growing & Harvesting: roots and leaves. Fertilize with Mix 1 teaspoon epsom salt with 1 gallon of water.
Majikal Applications: Water majiks. Absorbs "dampness"/expels mold. Spreading out. Pushes through the inhospitable.
*leeching, growth, cleansing energetic toxins. *Accumulates copper so it's conductive.
Wards and cleanses energy because it's fondness to hold copper inhibits growth of microbes and bacteria.
Other Names: Maiden Grass, Maiden Fern
Notes:







Plantain: Plantago (Plantaginaceae)
Historical & Medicinal Use:
Growing & Harvesting:
Toxicology:
Majikal Applications:
Other Names: Broadleaf Plantain
Notes:

Puttyroot:Aplectrum Hyemale (MUHL.) TORR. (Orchidaceae)
Historical & Medicinal Use: long ago used in tea to treat bronchitis. Crushed roots used to mend broken pots.
Toxicology: Poisonous. Do not burn or ingest.
Growing & Harvesting: self-pollinating. roots in Autumn.
Majikal Applications: Water work. Forest work. Mending, molding, gluing, adhesion. infertility (as a charm or meditative tool only). To make a work or project stick. Memory majiks.
historically and popularly used in hoodoo charms for relationships.(man caries long bulb./woman carries round one.). Attraction work: breakup spells.
as lucky hand root for luck. Usually dressed or fixed with an oil for targeting chosen vibe.(person, interest, need, desire)
Other Names:Adam & Eve
Notes:





Rose, Multiflora Wild : Rosa Multiflora & Rosa Polyantha (Rosaceae)
Historical & Medicinal Use:
Hips are edible and high in nutrients.
Growing & Harvesting: grows like wildfire. Chokes off everything. Plant in a container if you really want it. Great to alleviate soil erosion, but
invasive in the way it takes over. Hips harvested in Autumn.
Toxicology:N/A except that the thorns may introduce bacteria if you get pricked (as with any wild briar).
Majikal Applications:
Abundance, rampid growth, thicket work, getting over obstacles. Protection because the thorns are sharp and they thicket up quick.
Other Names: briar rose, baby rose,Japanese rose,many-flowered rose,seven-sisters rose,Eijitsu rose and rambler rose.
Notes: hairy bits ground up for itching powder. Animals love it. Native of China, Korea and Japan.
Currently, mulitflora rose is found in 41 states and is classified as either a noxious weed, prohibited invasive species or *banned, in 13 states,
including Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. It is also ranked among the top forest invasive plant species for
the northeastern area by the US Forest Service.



Sorrel: Oxalis montana (Oxalidaceae)
Historical & Medicinal Use:
Growing & Harvesting:
Toxicology:
Majikal Applications:
Other Names: mountain woodsorrel, wood shamrock, sours
Notes:

Spicebush: Lindera benzoin (Lauraceae)
Historical & Medicinal Use: All parts interchangeably. oil from the pressed berries *used by some for relief of fatigue, pain, arthritis, fever, cold symptoms, intestinal disorders and even breathing difficulties. [link]
Harvested for tea and fragrance.
Toxicology:N/A.
Majikal Applications: Thicket work. Protection. Hearth work. Water and fire work. When creating substance/richness. Animal majik.
Growing & Harvesting:It is best to grow the plant from seed as its extensive rootsystem does not handle transplanting well. Moist, rich soil. Limestone lover.
Other Names:spicewood,fever bush, Benjamin bush, snap-wood, wild allspice, Appalachian spice, “forsythia of the forest”.
Notes:

*Spikenard, American: Aralia Nudicaulis L. & Aralia Racemosa (Araliaceae)
Historical & Medicinal Use: Encouraged sweating, burn ointment. The rootstock is used as a flavouring, some have used it as a substitute for sarsaparilla
and is also used for making 'root beer'.
Toxicology:N/A
Majikal Applications: the plant is hermaphroditic. Work with unions. Baphomet & Figura work. Making room. Cleverness. Shadow work. Adaptation.
Growing & Harvesting: Root in Autumn. NOT true Sarsaparilla. *Not medicinal Spikenard.
Other Names:Wild sarsaparilla, American sarsaparilla, American spikenard, false sarsaparilla, rabbit's foot, sarsaparil, sarsaparilla, sarsaparilla root,
shotbush, small spikenard, small spikeweed, spignet, spikenard, sweetroot, Virginian sarsaparilla, wild licorice.
Notes:

Stargrass: Aletris Farinosa (Liiliaceae)
Historical & Medicinal Use: In colonial times as a diuretic, sedative and as a treament for colic.Roots were mixed with whiskey and ingested to treat rheumatism.
Toxicology: Mildly toxic. *Endocrine disuptor. Avoid especially during pregnancy and breastfeeding.
Majikal Applications:
Growing & Harvesting: Rhizomes in Autumn.
Other Names: Starwort, Ague, Crow Corn, Colic Root
Notes:

Sweetgrass: Hierochloe odorata (Poaceae)/Anthoxanthum nitens
Historical & Medicinal Use: Incense. Oils from the leaf used for flavoring.
Toxicology: The leaves contain coumarin. Blood thinning. Can be carcinogenic.
Majikal Applications: smudging. cleansing. calming. comfort.
Growing & Harvesting: harvested in the summer and dried for later use.
Other Names: sweet grass, manna grass, Mary’s grass,vanilla grass, holy grass.
Notes:



Thistle:Cirsium vulgare (Asteraceae)
Historical & Medicinal Use: flowers are a rich nectar source. Seeds are eaten by wildlife.
The stems can be peeled and then steamed or boiled. The tap roots can be eaten raw or cooked, but are only palatable
on young thistles that have not yet flowered.[link]
The dried florets steeped in water are used in rural Italy for curdling goats' milk in preparation for making cheese.
Milk thistle medicinal uses include preventing and repairing damage to the liver from toxic chemicals and helping in the
treatment of those who have ingested the poisonous mushroom commonly known as the death cap mushroom.
Growing & Harvesting:
Toxicology: the spines can transfer bacteria and other toxins in the environment. Skin irritant.
Majikal Applications: roots and establishing.
Other Names:
Notes:

Thyme, Wild:Thymus serpyllum (Lamiaceae) Historical & Medicinal Use:
Growing & Harvesting:
Toxicology:
Majikal Applications:
Other Names:
Notes:







Wisteria: Wisteria Sinesis (Fabaceae) Historical & Medicinal Use:
Growing & Harvesting:
Toxicology:
Majikal Applications:
Other Names:
Notes:





Yarrow: Asteraceae: Achillea millefolium (a thousand leaves)
Historical & Medicinal Use: Was used to cleanse battlefield wounds. Aromatic. causes sweats. stimulates menstruation.
Contains anti-inflammatory and antiseptic oils, as well as astringent tannins and resins.
Toxicology: Some sold varieties may contain *thujone and not be safe for those on blood thinners or who are pregnant.
Thujone is the active chemical in Wormwodd and can be psychoactive.
Majikal Use: Venus herb attracting love. Attracts bees, wasps and butterflies.Repellant and ward against malevolence. Used for IChing divination.
Growing & Harvesting: August. Herbs and leaves.
Other Names: common yarrow, gordaldo, nosebleed plant, old man's pepper, devil's nettle, sanguinary, milfoil, soldier's woundwort, thousand-leaf, and thousand-seal
Notes:




Sources & Further Reading (not complete)
Books
"A Guide to Medicinal Plants of Appalachia" by US Forestry Service.[PDF]
"Braiding Sweetgrass". Robin Wall Kimmerer
Articles
BotanicalMedicine.Org
"Handbook of phytochemical constituents of GRAS herbs and other economic plants". James Duke. "The pros and cons of phytoestrogens".Patisaul/Jefferson. NIH
Biosynthetic insights (re:Aletris farinosa)
NIH: endocrine disruptors.
PDF (re: Achillea Millefolium) from International Journal of Toxicology
US ForestyService (re: wood anatomy: Alder)
Smudging and the Four Sacred Medicines (Re: Sweetgrass)
No hazard on Amaranthus
Multiflora Rose Banned in 13 states
Klappenbach, Laura. "The Geology, History, and Wildlife of the Appalachian Mountain Habitat." ThoughtCo, Feb. 11, 2020,
Poison Hemlock, dangerous weed: LINK
Thistle: https://dengarden.com/landscaping/Milk-Thistle-and--Poison-Hemlock
As always,. research these on your own. There is always new info coming out.
Other
What is plant toxicology? Plant toxins are toxic secondary plant metabolites which naturally occur in food, feed, weeds and ornamental plants. The chemical diversity is tremendous.
In herbal remedies a plant toxin can be the same substance as the ingredient to which the pharmaceutical effect is attributed.
Much of this information has been gathered by personal experiences, classes, asking questions to various farmers, herbalists, gardeners, doctors,
especially during a time long before the internet was a "thing". I do research the ld notes and compare what I have with various internet sources to make sure
I keep up to date on any new findings. Some of this info comes from reading things that I can't remember what or when, but retained the mental info through practice and
repetition; many and varied "info checks" on the internet. I *do* try to write them all down, but I frequently move too fast in too many mental directions.
I do have my Google history if necessary)

I am constantly met with the desire and temptation to include non-native species I like into the herbarium. If it can be grown here, I will place it here.
I love cloves. From what I understand you can grow clove trees in the house. Unfortunately, it's not a sustainable solution because they grow to be 40 feet tall.
I'm always looking for Appalachian alternatives to herbs and plants that are grown in other parts of the planet. There are many that can be employed majikally, but not culinary.
Since this page reflects only the native species, I will refrain from adding non-natives to the herbarium. I will, however, post recipes that incorporate non-natives in the coven forum
as well as other parts of this website. As always, buy organic, ecologically sound and fair trade. We all have become comfortable with and love certain spices that we cannot grow locally.
The least we can do for ourselves and each other is to make healthy, ecologically sound and fair purchases.

In the movie series "Dracula", he wakes up over 100 years later to the modern world. While surveying a random family's home, he observes everything we have come to have as a modern society:
television and phone and appliances and plush furniture. He implies that these things represent luxuries beyond comprehension to ancestors long gone.
In taking note of all of the conveniences and treasures we have come to surround ourselves with, he expresses how hundreds of years ago, these things would have been only attainable by royalty
and/or the extremely wealthy. In this regard he says “I knew the future would bring wonders. I never imagined it would make them ordinary.”
Give a think to this. Think about how spices and certain plants were highly prized when they weren't convenient. Think about the ships that did and still do carry these wonders and luxuries to us, the people
who did and still do suffer to plant, maintain and harvest, and those involved in transport. When you step back in time, and take these things into account, and what your life would be without them,
it should bring more than a sense of awe, but a change in perception and value.

As always, this is a LIVE work. It is ongoing, and will continue to be updated and revised.
Any information that is new, wrong, or updated will be revised as soon as I catch wind of it.
If you find an error, kindly message me at arijahankhkhalid@gmail.com. :) Thanks.


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